Apart from the British Empire, they were not favored destinations for the immigration of surplus populations. These included significant wars of independence fought in Indonesia, Vietnam, Algeria, and Kenya. Eventually, the European powers—pressured by the United States and Soviets—resigned themselves to decolonization.
These new lands were divided between the Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire then still between Portugal and Castile—the Crown of Castile had a dynastic but not state union with the Crown of Aragon through the Catholic Monarchsfirst by the papal bull Inter caetera and then by the treaties of Tordesillas and Zaragoza.
This period is also associated with the Commercial Revolution.
It also saw the establishment of a Danish colonial empire and some Swedish overseas colonies. The word "colony" comes from the Latin colonia—"a place for agriculture".
The Russian EmpireOttoman Empire and Austrian Empire existed at the same time as the above empires, but did not expand over oceans. However, many new colonies were established after this time, including the German colonial empire and Belgian colonial empire.
There was, though, some Russian colonization of the Americas across the Bering Strait. At its height, it was the largest empire in history.
Spain initially the Crown of Castile and soon later Portugal encountered the Americas through sea travel and built trading posts or conquered large extensions of land. In the late 19th century, many European powers were involved in the Scramble for Africa. The 17th century saw the creation of the French colonial empire and the Dutch Empireas well as the English overseas possessionswhich later became the British Empire.
He reports that in every case the support cost, especially the military system necessary to support and defend the colonies outran the total trade they produced.
These territories were divided into three classes according to how quickly it was deemed that they would be ready for independence. In the United Nations set up a Special Committee on Decolonizationoften called the Committee of 24, to encourage this process.
After the First World Warthe victorious allies divided up the German colonial empire and much of the Ottoman Empire between themselves as League of Nations mandates. This was caused by a number of reasons. These ideas were adopted and adapted in western Europe to the high risks and rewards associated with colonial ventures.
Map of the British Empire as of Second, many colonial powers were significantly weakened by World War II. The word "metropole" comes from the Greek metropolis [Greek: The home domains of the colonial powers had a total population of about million people.
The Empire of Japan modelled itself on European colonial empires.
European empires in the 20th century[ edit ] The major European empires consisted of the following colonies at the start of World War I former colonies of the Spanish Empire became independent before and are not listed; former colonies of other European empires that previously became independent, such as the former French colony Haiti, are not listed.
Map of colonial empires throughout the world in Map of colonial empires throughout the world in Map of colonial empires throughout the world in Map of colonial empires at the end of the Second World War, Activity that could be called colonialism has a long history starting with the pre-colonial African empires which led to the EgyptiansPhoeniciansGreeks and Romans who all built colonies in antiquity.
First, the Japanese victories in the Pacific War showed Indians, Chinese, and other subject peoples that the colonial powers were not invincible. Rather, these empires expanded through the more traditional route of conquest of neighbouring territories.
The late Middle Ages saw reforms in accountancy and banking in Italy and the eastern Mediterranean. Dozens of independence movements and global political solidarity projects such as the Non-Aligned Movement were instrumental in the decolonization efforts of former colonies.
The spread of colonial empires was reduced in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by the American Revolutionary War and the Latin American wars of independence. For some people, it is this building of colonies across oceans that differentiates colonialism from other types of expansionism.Age of Imperialism Notes: Page 1 Age of Imperialism Notes European History.
The Age of Imperialism, – Western countries colonize large areas of Africa and Asia, leading to political and cultural changes. Colonialism reduces local fighting.
Imperialism As the 19th century came to a close, many voices cried for American expansionism to match the imperialistic ambitions of Europe and Japan. The Open Door Notes stated that the pre-thought "informal empire" was correct as opposed to overseas colonies being favored by imperial power.
Boxer Rebellion: The Boxers, a. Assumptions are that colonialism and imperialism are interchangeable, however Robert J. C. Young suggests that imperialism is the concept while colonialism is the practice.
Colonialism is based on an imperial outlook, thereby creating a consequential relationship. Notes Further reading. Albertini, Rudolf von. IMPERIALISM, COLONIALISM, World History, Notes for UPSC, updated notes for UPSC, Updated notes for IAS Exam, World history notes in hindi, notes in hindi.
Imperialism And Colonialism, Chapter Summary Imperialism is the process whereby one state extends political, economic, and social control over another. View Notes - Colonialism Notes from ANTH at University of Louisiana, Lafayette.
Colonialism A. Colonialism and Imperialism A Imperialism refers to a %(1).Download